Forthcoming in Development Policy Review
This study reviews post-2005 national development strategies of fifty countries from diverse income groups, geographical locations, human development tiers, and ODA levels to assess MDG absorption into development planning. Reviewing PRSPs and non-PRSP national strategies, the majority of the development plans have either adopted the MDGs as planning tools or “localized” them in a meaningful way, using diverse adaptation strategies. A high correlation is detected between income group, PRSP status and ODA reliance of countries, and their propensity to incorporate MDGs in their planning instruments. However, MDG alignment is not coterminous with greater pro-poor or MDG-oriented policies. Countries that have not integrated MDGs into their national plans were as likely to allocate government funds to social sectors as MDG aligners.
This paper compares the process that gave rise to the Millennium Development Goals to the current process that will generate Sustainable Development Goals. It takes into account the changes that the world has experienced since the year 2000 and argues that shifting wealth and power dynamics from the North to key actors in the South, diversification of ideologies, an exponentially growing world population, and rapid technological revolution have all contributed to making the post-2015 development agenda a process that is more focused on the path to the next development agenda and not only its outcome.
In this paper, we offer a brief review of the history of political thought to illustrate how political choice as a normative project has been gradually transformed into a positive enterprise where causal explanation dominates the contemporary studies of decision-making. We draw on Lefort, whose notion of the ‘empty place’ points us to the background space, which surrounds political decisions, where ideologies and institutions are not preordained but perpetually open to contestation. Taking our cue from Lefort and building on Mitchell’s critique of the conceptual-empirical or state- society distinction, we then introduce our policy space model, a space of political contestation over the dominant ideologies and institutions of a political community which structures the choices of decision makers. We then elaborate on the active and latent dimensions constituting the policy space and the transformations possible based on interactions between these dimensions. Finally, we illustrate our theoretical analysis through an examination of the global development agenda, which by the turn of the millennium converged on poverty reduction. We use our policy space model to depict the process through which alternative conceptions of development were gradually marginalized so that the active domain of policy space came to be occupied primarily by the liberal epistemology of the Millennium Development Goals, with the dominant narrative converging multiplicity towards a single end point.
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